Decentralized Autonomous Vehicles



Pre-sale: sold on presale  14 000 000 USD

Public sale: 11th June of 2018

Whitelist: yes + KYC

Hard Cap: 76 000 ETH

Total supply: 2 480 000 000

Token allocation: 40%

Token base price: 1 DAV = 0,0683 USD (0,00010 ETH)

Accepted currency: ETH


Underlying platform: Ethereum, ERC20

Ticker: DAV




  • First-mover for a decentralized solution for a huge potential market
  • Incentivization of participants and contributors to the infrastructure
  • Fair recognition on social media




  • The token does not have many use cases
  • Not that big allocation for token buyers
  • Very ambitious and a bit futuristic goal for now




Team: 4/5

Project: 4/5

Token use case: 3/5

Token Metrics: 2/4

Roadmap: 2/3

Community and marketing: 3/5

Hype: 2/3




DAV is a computer network that will ultimately connect self-driving vehicles (such as cars trucks, rovers, and drones) to everyone on that network, enabling them to discover, communicate, and transact using a token. Users can pay for the use of any of those vehicles with a token to get a ride or pick up and deliver a package. People who own those vehicles or the charging stations on the network can earn tokens for these services they provide.




Overall there is 18 people in the core team and 12 advisors. Furthermore there is about 142 open source developers contributing to the project.


Noam Copel – CEO and FounderA senior executive, strategist, and investor, with an expertise in the blockchain, cryptocurrencies, and encryption. In 2003 created the world’s first smartphone encryption system distributed in over 50 countries.


Tal Ater – CTO and Co-FounderA developer and entrepreneur for over 20 years, a published O’Reilly author, an invited expert on the W3C Automotive Working Group, and a coder since the age of 8. Experienced in building and leading R&D teams in startups and organizations. Previously R&D Director and VP of Product at Somoto (TASE: SMTO). Core contributor and lead developer of many influential open-source projects.


John Frazer – CCO and Co-Founder John is the former External Relations lead for the Ethereum Foundation and was a senior member of the Devcon3 team. An experienced senior manager in the technology industry. He has served on multiple boards for non-profits, for-profits and in economic development.


Joe Lopardo – CMO and Co-Founder An entrepreneur, investor, and doer for over 10 years across a multitude of industries. Involved in the blockchain and cryptocurrency space at large. Has worked with companies such as Google, Oracle, Salesforce, and SAP to develop their brand and implement marketing strategies.


Advisory board

Dr. Alan Messer – Automotive Advisor – An industry consultant and was formerly Vice President of Software and Innovation and CTO of Global Connected Consumer eXperience at General Motors where he led GM’s work on products, platforms and future technologies for the Connected Car and Services. Alan has worked at a variety of consumer electronics companies including Samsung Electronics, HP, and Sony Electronics.


Dr. Scott Horowitz – Aerospace Advisor –  A former NASA astronaut, Space Shuttle pilot/commander, and NASA Associate Administrator for the Exploration Mission Directorate. He was an Air Force instructor pilot, F-15 fighter pilot, and test pilot. He has held positions in the aerospace industry and has been a college professor. He currently is president of Doc’s Aerospace LLC providing flight test and technical services to all sectors of aerospace from rockets to drones.


Jay Adelson – Internet Infrastructure Advisor – Serial entrepreneur and a investor known for his work founding and running companies such as Equinix, Digg, Revision3, SimpleGeo, and Opsmatic. Equinix, which Jay founded and was its CEO, is currently the largest data center provider in the world, providing data centers to Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, and others. In 2008, Jay was selected by Time Magazine as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World.


Dr. Greg Colvin – Technology AdvisorCore developer with the Ethereum Foundation and a key engineer behind the Ethereum Virtual Machine. Served as a sitting member of the ANSI/ISO C++ standards committee and as a Principal Member of Technical Staff with the Java Products Group at Oracle Corporation. Holds a Ph.D. in Quantitative Psychology from Cornell University.




The DAV stack is composed of five main components, each providing one piece of the puzzle needed to enable a decentralized autonomous vehicle ecosystem. The five decentralized components are:

  • Identity
  • Discovery
  • Communication
  • Mission Flow
  • Payments


Each entity using the DAV network has its own pseudonymous identity, known as a DAV Identity. These entities might be a person looking to purchase transportation services, a rooftop charging station for drones, a driverless car, an insurance service, or even a group of several cargo drones controlled by a single system. These pseudonymous identities are uniquely identifiable and non-ephemeral, while still providing a degree of anonymity. For example: you can know how many successful missions a drone completed, but not who that drone is or who owns it.


While it is possible for a smart contract to know when a financial transaction has completed, knowing whether a physical package was delivered with a scratch is trickier. DAV offers three tools for dealing with counterparty risks: a public transaction history, third-party arbitrators, and third-party insurers.


A single legal entity or person can create multiple pseudonymous identities to represent themselves. This makes the system potentially prone to so-called sock puppets – identities created with the sole purpose of hiding past negative behavior. Users tend to trust and value vendors with a long history of successful transactions while considering transactions with new vendors riskier. For example, in online freelancing sites such as Upwork and Elance, veteran users with many positive ratings are able to charge a premium over new unknown users. Similarly, when evaluating bids for services over the DAV network, a potential buyer might look at a seller’s history as important criteria, and not just go for the lowest bid.


Decentralized discovery represents the difference between a world where introducing a vehicle to a new environment requires building a support structure around it (e.g., charging and service stations, parking, etc.), and a truly connected world where any autonomous vehicle can operate in any environment, consuming services around it as the need arises.

DAV implements this decentralized node discovery using a peer-to-peer protocol that is based on Kademlia DHT (the same algorithm used by Ethereum’s node discovery, as well as popular peer-to-peer protocols such as BitTorrent).

It enables node lookups with logarithmic difficulty and has been proven to scale remarkably well.


Decentralized communication is key to facilitating most types of operations within the DAV network. This communication can be divided into two groups: on-blockchain communications and off-blockchain communications (peer-to-peer communications).


DAV’s peer-to-peer publish/subscribe system is based on an extension to Kademlia that is based on the Quasar algorithm. We are working to improve on a few of the issues identified in Quasar, namely latency, advantages to peers in close XOR distance (Kademlia uses an XOR metric to define distance. Two node ID’s or a node ID and a key are XORed and the result is the distance between them. For each bit, the XOR function returns zero if the two bits are equal and one if the two bits are different. XOR metric distances hold the triangle inequality: given A, B and C are vertices(points) of a triangle, then the distance from A to B is shorter than (or equal to) the sum of the distance from A to C to B.” rather than geographical distance, and the ability for nodes to refuse to relay messages when it is advantageous to them to do so.


Mission flow

To enable a successful exchange of services between two or more parties, DAV offers a communication protocol designed to ease each step of the mission flow – from the initial statement of need through bidding, service fulfillment, and eventually payment. These steps are executed off-blockchain using peer-to-peer communication and are governed and enforced by a number of smart contracts on the blockchain.



A buyer is defining a need. This Need is then broadcast to all DAV entities that are able to provide that service. As an example, let’s take a person looking to ship a package to a friend who lives in the city. That user broadcasts a Need to deliver a package of a certain size from coordinate α to coordinate β at a certain time. In turn, a drone looking to deliver that package might broadcast its own Needs, such as a charging station within 500 m of coordinate β and a robot able to do the “last mile” of the delivery from a rooftop landing station to the second floor of the building at coordinate β.
The Need includes a number of fields, which are mandatory to all Need messages, as well as a payload with additional details specific to the type of service requested (e.g., package weight, number of passengers, etc.)


Bidding process:

Any Identity (a seller in this case) listening to incoming Needs can respond with a Bid to fulfill that Need. The Bid is sent directly to the buyer and, like the Need, includes a few mandatory fields common to all Bids, as well as a payload containing additional details relating to the specific type of service. For example, a drone responding to a request for a ride might include the price for completing the mission, an expiration time for the Bid, the drone’s current location, estimated time of pickup, estimated time of delivery, and additional details like whether it requires a third-party arbitrator to sign the contract.

The entire flow is asynchronous. The drone from the previous example might receive the Need and, before sending its Bid, broadcast its own Need asking for Bids from insurers to insure the delivery.


A multi-step smart contract between a drone and a client looking to ship a package can be updated as the mission progresses through various steps (travel to the pickup location, pickup, travel to a destination, etc.) This on-blockchain data can later be used by another contract that was created to insure the transaction.


DAV will develop tools to enable third-party developers to create domain-specific multi-step contracts to be used on the DAV network.


To help grow the Internet of Transportation and jumpstart the network effect, the foundation will actively incentivize early adopters in select cities, establishing favorable market conditions and lowering barriers to entry. DAV cities will be designated by the foundation based on the following criteria:

  • Autonomous-vehicle-friendly regulation
  • Financial incentives from local EDOs (i.e., economic development offices)
  • Viable use cases and populations of early adopters
  • Deployment of UTM12 for integrated airspace management through e-registration, e-identification, flight planning, geofencing, airspace authorization, flight tracking, and live telemetry services

Token use case


DAV smart contracts support the transfer of DAV tokens, refunds, staking tokens for insurance, and more.

The token is fully ERC-20 Token Standard -compliant. It implements the ERC-20 token interface, with a few additions that extend its functionality for the unique needs of the DAV network, as well as deal with a few of the known security issues of ERC-20 tokens.


In addition to the specialized functionality it enables, the payment contract also keeps track of which Identities hold incentive tokens, as well as a whitelist of identities that can receive incentive tokens.


Incentive tokens are real DAV tokens held in a separate wallet by DAV Foundation or the relevant ecosystem member. When the DAV Foundation or other ecosystem members decide to incentivize a seller (e.g., a charging station) it may deposit DAV tokens (either previously acquired or bought with Ethers at the current market rate on the secondary market) in the incentive token wallet of the DAV Foundation or the relevant ecosystem member, as the case may be. DAV Foundation does not operate such wallets on behalf of ecosystem members (i.e. ecosystem members may not hold the tokens centrally on hardware wallets with DAV Foundation and DAV Foundation does not hold the private keys on behalf of ecosystem members). Next, it assigns those tokens to potential buyers (e.g., electric vehicles) of that seller’s services using the “addIncentiveTokens()” function. Finally, it uses the “createIncentive()” function to add that seller’s Identity to the incentive whitelist, allowing buyers to pay that seller with incentive tokens. When creating an incentive, a limit is also placed on the maximum number of tokens that a seller can receive, as well as the maximum percentage of each transaction that can be paid for with incentive tokens.

An example of this structure would be a charging station manufacturer incentivizing homeowners to buy and place charging equipment in their driveways. If the equipment and installation costs of each station is 100 DAV, the manufacturer may whitelist each of these new charging stations to receive up to 100 DAV in incentive tokens, virtually guaranteeing that the homeowners cover their initial costs.


Token metrics


DAV tokens will be distributed as part of a DAV incentives program, which will provide bounties directly to consumers and enthusiasts in DAV cities, to autonomous transportation services, and/or to autonomous vehicle companies for purchasing services from within the transport economy, such as charging or maintenance. As a balancing factor, the DAV Foundation will only fund the DAV Incentives program using DAV tokens that it has purchased on the markets at market price, using the foundation’s ETH reserves that were allocated specifically for this purpose.

To help make sure that incentives tokens are properly utilized, they are embedded with a list of allowed Identities before being distributed.


While the limitations on incentives do require a temporary period of centralized growth management, this does not have an impact on the long-term architecture of DAV as a completely decentralized platform.



The core team behind DAV will work with the community to continuously document, publish, and open source proof-of-concept releases.


Major milestones for development and go-to-market are:

  • MVP #1 – World’s first autonomous vehicle to autonomously bid for delivery services, complete them, and get paid using tokens directly to its own wallet.
  • MVP #2 – World’s first autonomous vehicle to pay for its own battery replacement using tokens and take off to complete its delivery mission.
  • MVP #3 – World’s first autonomous vehicle to pay another autonomous vehicle (robot) using tokens for completing the last mile of a delivery mission.
  • MVP #4 – Longest drone delivery flight ever, flying cross-country using the support of multiple DAV battery-changing stations along the way.
  • Additional Development – Add support for robotic vehicles, cars, and marine vessels.

Main net and first service should be launched before token sale. The goals of the team are clearly defined and end in Q3 2019 when the network should be fully released with all the services.




Their Telegram has more than 15 000 members, Rachel Linnewiel and Joe Lopardo are editors of their Medium blog which is semi-active and filled with interesting content. On Youtube, their channel has about 2,9k followers. Their Facebook is followed by circa 3 700 users. On Twitter, 3 700 followers, their Github: On Reddit they have 362 readers but the community seems not to be very active there. Their Linkedin profile has 308 followers   


The project has medium-high hype compared to other overhyped projects that came up this year and active marketing on various social media.